Saxony is not a normal one state. Not because the people here have their very own way of life and approach to life, but because Saxony is a Free State of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Saxony is located in central Germany and has only existed in its current form since 1990, after the fall of the wall and reunification of Germany. The state capital is the world-famous city of Dresden.
However, Saxony was a free state a long time ago; even during the Weimar Republic, Saxony was known as a free state from 1919 to 1933. Incidentally, this is simply an old word for republic that has been retained here, in Thuringia and in Bavaria.
Geography and landscapes of Saxony It is not only the word Free State that connects Saxony with Bavaria and Thuringia, they also share common borders. In addition, Brandenburg and the Czech Republic border on the federal state of Saxony. The east of Saxony is bordered by Poland.
In general, a distinction is made between three regions in Saxony. So you can find the lowlands, the hilly and the low mountain ranges.
The lowland consists for the most part of the Leipzig lowland bay, which (as the name suggests) is located in the region around Leipzig. The northern part of Upper Lusatia is also part of the plains. In the further south there is the hill country, which is characterized by the loess hill country. Here you will find particularly fertile soil that guarantees high-yielding harvests. The reason for the soil fertility are terminal moraines that were formed in the ice ages.
The low mountain range of Saxony extends from west to east and in the southwest of the state. While the Vogtland and the Ore can be marketed touristy parts of are desk plaice and Egertalgraben hardly noticed. The Fichtel Mountains arealso an important tourist destination.
A visit to the Ore Mountains / Vogtland Nature Park is particularly recommended, where you can see natural rivers, animals in their original surroundings and wonderful landscapes.
Important bodies of water are also located in Saxony. In addition to the Elbe, which is the only navigable river, and the Spree, the Lusatian Neisse and the Oder also flow through the region.
The history of Saxony
The tribal duchy of Saxony, which served as a settlement area for the Saxons, has historically little in common with today’s state of Saxony. The tribal area of the Germanic Saxons was in northern Germany. In many history books and historical documents one can therefore find the names Upper Saxony and Lower Saxony to distinguish the two regions. The state of Saxony and the state of Thuringia have the same history until the 15th century.
Archaeologists were able to prove on the basis of finds that the first ceramic cultures must have lived here as early as 5,500 BC. Most of the peoples and their successors lived on the Elbe, Mulde and Spree rivers under the protection of the mountains.
From 1934 to 1945 and also from 1952 to 1990 the state of Saxony did not have any state sovereignty. This means that it actually didn’t exist. In 1990 Saxony was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, where it now plays an important role as a federal state in political, economic and social terms.
Magdeburg is the capital of the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt. This German state borders on Brandenburg, Lower Saxony, Saxony and Thuringia and belonged to the Germans until the “Wende” Democratic Republic.
Landscapes of Saxony-Anhalt
The Landscapes of Saxony-Anhalt has mostly flat areas and the more sparsely populated regions in the Altmark. The Hanseatic cities of Salzwedel, Gardelegen and Stendal can also be found here. In the areas of the Magdeburg Börde there are few areas that are forested, but the soil here is very fertile and can therefore be used for agriculture.
The Harz is located in the southwest of the state and, together with the Harz National Park, is certainly one of the most famous regions in Saxony-Anhalt. The Halle agglomeration is adjacent to the Harz region. This region is also called the chemistry triangle, as there are a particularly large number of chemical factories here. Since there are relatively many jobs in Halle (Saale), this city is also the largest in Saxony-Anhalt.
In the further course towards the south is the wine-growing area. Very tasty wines are produced here, which are exported all over the world.
The emergence of the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt
Today’s Saxony-Anhalt came into being in July 1944. The Prussian province of Saxony was divided into the provinces of Magdeburg and Halle-Merseburg. A year later, the Free State of Anhalt, Calyörde and Blankenburg as well as Allstedt joined these two provinces. All parts were combined to form the province of Saxony. Only a few months later the name was changed to the province of Saxony-Anhalt. In 1947 Prussia was dissolved and the state of Saxony-Anhalt was founded. Since Magdeburg was unable to take over the function of the capital due to the severe destruction of the war, Halle became the capital of Saxony-Anhalt.
During the time of the GDR, the state of Saxony-Anhalt did not exist as such. Only after reunification in 1990 was the federal state newly created and has existed in its current form ever since. This time Magdeburg was given the role of the state capital.
Politics in Saxony-Anhalt
Since the state was re-established, there have been repeated political escapades, affairs and scandals. Even the CDU, which was the ruling party at the beginning, suffered a setback in the second state elections. This finally led to the Magdeburg model, which consisted of the SPD and Alliance 90 / Greens ruling together, which the PDS tolerated. The two parties formed the new state government and the Prime Minister Reinhard Höppner ruled Saxony-Anhalt for two legislative periods. He made numerous changes in the economic and labor market structure.
After the Greens had to leave the government, the SPD continued to rule alone. Even today, the unemployment figures are extremely high in this part of Germany. The right-wing extremist background in the form of various parties and groups flares up again and again. For example, the right-wing extremist DVU was able to move into the state parliament, but was not re-elected in 2002. In that year the SPD was replaced by the CDU / FDP, which took over the government. The SPD later replaced the FDP and ruled together with the CDU in Saxony-Anhalt.