General information about Canada
The official name is Canada. Located in the northern part of North America (with adjacent islands, including the Canadian Arctic Archipelago). Area 9,976,140 km2. By the size of the territory – the 2nd place in the world after the Russian Federation. The population is 32 million people. (2003). The concept of “state language” in Canada is not accepted. Under the Constitution, the “official” languages of the country are equivalent in use by the federal public services of Canada, English and French. The capital is Ottawa (1.1 million people). The national holiday is Canada Day on July 1st. The monetary unit is the Canadian dollar.
Member of the UN (since 1945) and its specialized organizations, NATO (since 1949), OECD (since 1961), OSCE (since 1975), G7, OAS (since 1990), North American Free Trade Agreement (NAF-TA, since 1994), Commonwealth, Francophonie, WTO, IBRD, IMF, etc.
Canada is located between 52°37′ and 141°00′W and 41°41′ and 83°06′N. The length from east to west is 5514 km; from south to north – 4634 km. It is washed in the east by the Atlantic, in the north by the Arctic Ocean and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. The total length of the heavily indented coastline (including the coasts of the islands) is 243,791 km (the longest in the world). The boundary of territorial waters is 3 nautical miles (5.5 km). The boundary of the maritime economic (fishing) zone is 200 nautical miles (371 km).
Canada borders the United States in the south, as well as in the northwest (with the state of Alaska). The length of the land borders is 8893 km.
Canada is divided into 7 physiographic regions. 1. Arctic mountains. Much of Ellesmere Island and the northeast coast of Baffin Island is occupied by a series of high mountains: the arctic desert. 2. Laurentian (Canadian) shield. The territory of this flat region, which occupies 1/2 of the country’s area, is composed of ancient crystalline rocks. Landforms are a legacy of the Ice Age. The region is extremely rich in mineral resources (ores of ferrous, nonferrous, noble, radioactive and rare earth metals, as well as diamond deposits discovered in the late 20th century, exploration of which continues). Tundra, forest-tundra, coniferous forests in the south. 3. Appalachian mountains. The Atlantic provinces and the island of Newfoundland represent the northernmost edge of the Appalachian mountain system. The highest mountain is d’Iberville (1622 m) in the province of Quebec. forest tundra, coniferous and mixed forests in the south. 4. Interior plains. This area bordering the Canadian Shield continues from the USA through the forest-steppes and steppes of the southern part of the Steppe Provinces (now almost completely plowed) and extends northwest to the tundra of the Arctic coast. Large deposits of oil and natural gas have been found here and on the northern sea shelf. 5. The Rocky Mountains rise sharply along the western edge of the Interior Plains. Their peaks often exceed 3 thousand m (the highest is Mount Columbia, 3747 m). 6. Intermountain regions of the West. This region, of exceptional geological complexity, is a succession of plateaus, low ranges and valleys west of the Rocky Mountains; separates them from the mountain ranges that stretch along the Pacific coast. 7. Pacific mountain system. The western edge of the continent is a mountainous country stretching from Alaska through the Yukon Territory and British Columbia to California. Here is the highest point in Canada – Mount Logan (6050 m) in the Saint Elias Mountains near the border with Alaska. The resources of the Pacific, as well as the Atlantic, region are metal ores, fish and wood of the most valuable species, including the Canadian “cedar” – a giant thuja. (The famous Canadian “sugar” maple with sweet juice, the leaf of which has become the national emblem of the country, grows only in southeastern Canada). Canadian “cedar” – a giant thuja. (The famous Canadian “sugar” maple with sweet juice, the leaf of which has become the national emblem of the country, grows only in southeastern Canada). Canadian “cedar” – a giant thuja. (The famous Canadian “sugar” maple with sweet juice, the leaf of which has become the national emblem of the country, grows only in southeastern Canada).
According to BRIDGAT, the climate of the central part of the country is influenced by the Hudson Bay of the Arctic Ocean, which cuts deep into the land, and the cold Labrador Current in the eastern part. Therefore, it is colder in Canada than at the same latitudes in Europe. As in the Russian Federation, approximately 70% of the country’s territory is usually attributed to the regions of the North. The northernmost 40% of the area of Canada, which are located north of 60 ° north latitude and are not part of its 10 provinces (but are allocated to 3 separate “territories” of federal subordination), is commonly called the “Far North”.
Canada accounts for 8% of the world’s river flow. The largest rivers (km): the Arctic Ocean basin (75% of the country’s territory) – Mackenzie (4241) with its tributaries Peace River (1923), Athabasca (1231), Liard (1115); Nelson (2575), Saskatchewan (1939), Churchill (1609); the basin of the Atlantic Ocean (15% of the territory) – St. Lawrence (3058) and its tributary Ottawa (1271); the Pacific Ocean basin (10% of the territory) – the Yukon River (3185, including the Canadian part – 1149), the Fraser (1370) and Columbia (2000, including the Canadian part – 801) flowing to Alaska. Lakes (according to various sources, Canada has 2–4 million lakes) cover approx. 8% of the country’s territory (this is 14% of the total water area of the world’s lakes). Canada shares the Great Lakes system with the United States (with the exception of Lake Michigan): the border runs along Lake Superior (its Canadian part is 29,888 km2 out of a total area of 84,243 km2), Huron (39,473 out of 63,096 km2), Erie (12,880 out of 25,812 km2) and Ontario (10,388 out of 19,001 km2). Other largest lakes (km2): B. Medvezhye (31,328), B. Slave (28,568), Winnipeg (24,387), Athabasca (7935).