Caracas is framed within a valley of the Cordillera de la Costa system, separated from the Caribbean Sea about 15 km by the El Ávila National Park, a mountainous formation considered by the people of Caracas as an emblem and plant lung of the city, as well as one of its main attractions

The valley is relatively small and quite irregular. The city has an area of more than 822 km². The altitude with respect to sea level varies from one point to another in the city, between 870 and 1,043 meters above sea level in the urban area, with 900 meters in its historic center. The highest point is Pico Naiguatá, at 2,765 meters above sea level, followed in decreasing order by Pico Oriental (2,640 meters above sea level), Galindo (2,600), Las Llaves (2,480), Pico Occidental (2,478), Goering (2,460).), Cerro El Ávila or Pico Humboldt (2159) and Santa Rosa (2150). [9]

The Ávila is connected to the city through a modern cable car system, the Caracas Cable Car, which is one of the main tourist attractions in the city.

The city is crossed by the Guaire River, 35 km in length, which follows the route of the valley that flows into the Tuy River and is fed by the El Valle and San Pedro rivers, in addition to numerous streams that descend from Ávila, also is the Mariposa Reservoir, at the south central exit of the city, which feeds water to a certain part of Caracas, although most of it is extracted from the Guárico River, in the Camatagua Reservoir, located in the town of the same name located in the State of Aragua.

The Caracas valley is a seismic zone, as it is located very close to the limit of two tectonic plates, the Caribbean and the South American. The earthquakes in the city are characterized by a high rate of microseismicity (events of magnitude less than 3 degrees on the Richter scale) and events of intermediate magnitude (between 3 and 5 degrees), although at least four earthquakes of great intensity, among which those of 1812 and 1967 stand out.


According to Bridgat, the Climate of Caracas is warm of the intertropical mountain type with rainfall that varies between 900 and 1300 mm per year, in the city itself, and up to 2000 mm in some parts of the Cordillera; The average annual temperature is 22.5 ° C, with the average of the coldest month (January) being 21 ° C and the average of the warmest month (May) of 24 ° C, which gives a low annual temperature range, only 3 ° C. In the months of December, January and February abundant fogs appear, in addition to a sudden drop in night temperatures that can drop to 12 ° C or less. In addition, night temperatures at any time of the year do not usually exceed 20 ° C.

On rare occasions, hail storms occur, especially in January. While electrical storms are much more frequent, especially between June and October, due to its closed valley condition and due to the orographic action of Ávila.

According to the Weatherbase website, the annual average of days below 18 ° C is 111, and 353 days below 23 ° C. While temperatures rarely reach 30 ° C, the annual average of days above 29 ° C is 43 and above 35 ° C only 1 day per year. Also the maximum temperature recorded is 37 ° C, and the lowest is 8 ° C. The average number of rainy days is 105. [10]


The Guaire River constitutes the main drainage route for the city’s wastewater, which is why it is highly polluted and in an ecologically alarming situation. In this way, the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources has been developing a river sanitation plan since 2005 that includes the construction of treatment plants, diversion of sewage and disposal of solid waste or waste, it is expected that in the year 2014 can successfully complete the rescue of the river. [eleven] The enormous proportions of these fires are due to the steep slopes (which favor the spread of the flames upwards) and the dryness of the vegetation, not only due to the lack of rainfall during this time, but also because the intensity of radiation is maximum in the slopes exposed to the south, since they correspond to the slopes of solana]].

Due to this, every year different planting or tree planting days take place in El Ávila, they are sponsored by different organizations from both the public and private sectors, their objective is to preserve the hill as a plant lung of the city of Caracas. Other events take place on the hill and on its skirt or edge, especially in the sports area, the “walk to Ávila” that takes place there is intended to promote sports and recreational activities in the population. Besides being a symbol of the city, Ávila boasts one of the most symbolic structures during the Christmas season, the Cruz del Ávila, [12] a symbol that is lit every December 1 and announces the arrival of Christmas.

During the dry season, a kind of fog covers the city, which the unsuspecting observer mistakes for Smog. It is actually haze, a particular set of crystals of seawater that is formed by the combined effect of the wind and the waves, whose rapid drying makes it suspended in the air. The abras that allow the passage of the trade winds are responsible for their transport and permanence in the Caracas valley; Although it becomes a factor that reduces visibility, it is not actually a pollution problem. [13]

Since 2006, the Mayor’s Office signed an international agreement with a group of cities from different parts of the world, to curb the impact of global warming and climate change that cities exert on the planet, the Climate Leadership Group of Large Cities, also known as C40 Cities, of which the city of Caracas is an active member. With the treaty, the respective local governments undertake to promote environmental plans through public awareness and reduce as much as possible the Carbon Monoxide emissions generated in the city.

Caracas, Venezuela Geography

Caracas, Venezuela Geography
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