Source Syria

Syria is located in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, Israel to the southwest, and Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west. Its strategic location has made it a crossroads of civilizations throughout history, with influences from various cultures shaping its identity.



Syria has a varied climate, with Mediterranean conditions prevailing along the coast and semi-arid to arid climates inland. Summers are hot and dry, while winters are mild and wet along the coast and colder with occasional snowfall in the interior. The Euphrates River valley experiences the highest temperatures, while the mountainous regions in the west receive more precipitation.


Syria’s diverse landscapes support a wide range of wildlife, including mammals such as gazelles, wolves, hyenas, and wildcats. Avian species include eagles, vultures, falcons, and various migratory birds. However, ongoing conflict and habitat destruction have posed significant threats to Syria’s biodiversity in recent years.

Longest Rivers

The Euphrates River is the longest river in Syria, flowing approximately 2,800 kilometers (1,740 miles) from its source in Turkey through Syria and Iraq. The river plays a vital role in irrigation, agriculture, and hydroelectric power generation, serving as a lifeline for communities along its banks.

Highest Mountains

Mount Hermon, located in the Anti-Lebanon mountain range along the border with Lebanon, is the highest peak in Syria, reaching an elevation of 2,814 meters (9,232 feet) above sea level. Other notable mountains include Mount Al-Ansariyah and Mount Al-Nabi Yunus.



Syria has a rich archaeological heritage dating back to prehistoric times, with evidence of human habitation dating back tens of thousands of years. The region was home to some of the earliest human civilizations, including the ancient city of Ebla and the Bronze Age kingdom of Mari.

Ancient Civilizations

Syria was a crossroads of ancient civilizations, including the Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, and Egyptians. The city of Damascus, one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, served as a major hub of trade and culture.

Classical Period

Syria was conquered by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE and later became part of the Roman and Byzantine Empires. It was during this period that Christianity spread throughout the region, with important centers of worship established in cities such as Antioch and Aleppo.

Islamic Conquest

In the 7th century CE, Syria was conquered by the Muslim Arab armies during the Islamic expansion. Damascus became the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate, ushering in a golden age of Islamic civilization marked by advancements in science, art, and architecture.

Ottoman Rule

Syria fell under Ottoman rule in the 16th century and remained part of the Ottoman Empire until the early 20th century. During this time, the region experienced relative stability but also endured periods of upheaval and conflict.

Modern Era

After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Syria became a French mandate following World War I before gaining independence in 1946. Since then, the country has experienced periods of political instability, military coups, and authoritarian rule. The ongoing civil war, which began in 2011, has resulted in widespread destruction, displacement, and humanitarian crisis.


Syria has a diverse population comprising various ethnic and religious groups. The majority of Syrians are Arabs, while Kurds, Assyrians, and Armenians also inhabit the country. Islam is the predominant religion, with Sunni Muslims forming the largest religious community, followed by Shia Muslims, Alawites, and Christians. However, the prolonged conflict has led to significant population displacement, with millions of Syrians fleeing the country as refugees.

Administrative Divisions

Syria is divided into 14 governorates (muhafazat), each with its own governor appointed by the central government. Here are the administrative divisions along with their respective populations:

  1. Damascus – Population: 2.8 million
  2. Aleppo – Population: 2.1 million
  3. Homs – Population: 1.6 million
  4. Hama – Population: 1.3 million
  5. Latakia – Population: 1.0 million
  6. Tartus – Population: 800,000
  7. Deir ez-Zor – Population: 1.2 million
  8. Raqqa – Population: 500,000
  9. Al-Hasakah – Population: 1.5 million
  10. Quneitra – Population: 200,000
  11. Daraa – Population: 1.0 million
  12. Suwayda – Population: 700,000
  13. Idlib – Population: 1.5 million
  14. As-Suwayda – Population: 500,000

10 Largest Cities by Population

The largest cities in Syria by population are:

  1. Damascus
  2. Aleppo
  3. Homs
  4. Hama
  5. Latakia
  6. Deir ez-Zor
  7. Raqqa
  8. Al-Hasakah
  9. Daraa
  10. Suwayda

Education Systems

Education in Syria is free and compulsory for children aged 6 to 12. The country has a relatively high literacy rate, with both primary and secondary education widely accessible. However, the ongoing conflict has severely disrupted the education system, with many schools damaged or destroyed, and millions of children unable to attend classes.



Syria has several major airports, including Damascus International Airport, Aleppo International Airport, and Latakia International Airport. However, many of these airports have been affected by the conflict, leading to disruptions in air travel.


Syria has a limited railway network, with the main line connecting Damascus with Aleppo and Latakia. The total length of the railway network is approximately 2,100 kilometers (1,305 miles).


Syria has an extensive network of highways and roads, with major routes connecting the country’s major cities and towns. However, many roads have been damaged or rendered impassable due to the conflict, hindering transportation and access to essential services.


Syria has several ports along the Mediterranean coast, including the Port of Latakia and the Port of Tartus. These ports play a crucial role in facilitating trade and commerce, although their operations have been affected by the conflict.

Country Facts

  • Population: 17 million (estimated before the civil war)
  • Capital: Damascus
  • Languages: Arabic (official)
  • Religion: Islam (predominantly Sunni)
  • Ethnicity: Arab (predominantly), Kurdish, Assyrian, Armenian
  • Currency: Syrian Pound (SYP)
  • ISO Country Code: SY
  • International Calling Code: +963
  • Top-Level Domain: .sy